.XXX Domains Registration:
XXX Domain Pre-registration allows customers to select the registration phase for which they want to apply and then search for up to 50 domain names. This process provides customers the best chance for securing their domains since pre-reg applications are submitted as soon as the selected phase begins.
Dot XXX Registration Phases are:
Sunrise A: September 7 - October 28, 2011:
* Adult Trademark Holders and Domain Owners
* Advance registration for current adult industry members
Sunrise B: September 7 - October 28, 2011:
* Standard Trademark Holders
* An opportunity for those who want to prevent their qualifying registered trademark from being registered as a .XXX
Landrush: November 8 - November 25, 2011:
* Priority Pre-Registration
* Available to the general public. Get in line early and improve your chances of getting a .XXX
General Availability: Starts December 6, 2011:
* .XXX becomes available to the general public on a first come, first served basis
The most common types of domain names are hostnames that provide more memorable names to stand in for numeric IP addresses. They allow for any service to move to a different location in the topology of the Internet (or an intranet), which would then have a different IP address.
By allowing the use of unique alphabetical addresses instead of numeric ones, domain names allow Internet users to more easily find and communicate with web sites and other server-based services. The flexibility of the domain name system allows multiple IP addresses to be assigned to a single domain name, or multiple domain names to be assigned to a single IP address. This means that one server may have multiple roles (such as hosting multiple independent websites), or that one role can be spread among many servers. One IP address can also be assigned to several servers, as used in anycast and hijacked IP space.
Hostnames are restricted to the ASCII letters a through z (case-insensitive), the digits 0 through 9, and the hyphen, with some other restrictions. Registrars restrict the domains to valid hostnames, because they otherwise would be useless. The Internationalized domain name (IDN) system has been developed to bypass the restrictions on character allowances in hostnames, making it easier for users of non-English alphabets to use the Internet. The underscore character is frequently used to ensure that a domain name is not recognized as a hostname, as with the use of SRV records, for example, although some older systems such as NetBIOS did allow it. Due to confusion and other reasons, domain names with underscores in them are sometimes used where hostnames are required.
Domain names are often referred to simply as domains and domain name registrants are frequently referred to as domain owners, although domain names, technically, are leased from a registrar.
The following example illustrates the difference between a URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and a domain name:
As a general rule, the IP address and the server name are interchangeable. For most Internet services, the server will not have any way to know which was used. However, the explosion of interest in the Web means that there are far more Web sites than servers. To accommodate this, the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) specifies that the client tells the server which name is being used. This way, one server with one IP address can provide different sites for different domain names. This feature goes under the name virtual hosting and is commonly used by Web hosts.
For example, (Reserved Top Level DNS Names), the server at IP address 188.8.131.52 (Reserved Top Level DNS Names) handles all of the following sites:
When a request is made, the data corresponding to the hostname requested is served to the user.
Every domain name ends in a top-level domain (TLD) name, which is always either one of a small list of generic names (three or more characters), or a two-character territory code based on ISO-3166 (there are few exceptions and new codes are integrated case by case). Top-level domains are sometimes also called first-level domains.
The generic top-level domain> (gTLD) extensions are:
In addition to the top-level, or root, domains, there are second-level domain (SLD) names. These are the names directly to the left of .com, .net, and the other top-level domains. As an example, in the domain xx.anycenter.org, anycenter is the second-level domain.
Next are third-level domains, which are shown immediately to the left of a second-level domain. In the xx.anycenter.org example, xx is a third-level domain. There can be fourth- and fifth-level domains, and so on, with virtually no limitation. An possible working domain with five levels could be www.sos.please.save.us. Each level is separated by a dot, or period symbol.
Domains of third or higher levels are also known as subdomains, though this term technically applies to a domain of any level because even a top-level domain is a "subdomain" of the "root" domain (a "zeroth-level" domain that is designated by a dot alone).
Traditionally, the second-level domain has been chosen based on the name of a company (e.g., centerzerocompany.com), product or service (e.g., centerzeromail.com). The third level was commonly used to designate a particular host server. Therefore, ftp.centerzero.org might be an FTP server, www.centerzero.org would be a World Wide Web server, and mail.centerzero.org could be an email server. Modern technology allows multiple servers to serve a single subdomain, or multiple protocols or domains to be served by a single computer. Therefore subdomains may or may not serve any real purpose.
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers) has overall responsibility for managing the DNS. It controls the root domain, delegating control over each TLD to a domain name registry. For ccTLDs, the domain registry is typically controlled by the government of that country. ICANN has a consultation role in these domain registries but is in no position to regulate the terms and conditions of how a domain name is allocated or who allocates it in each of these country-level domain registries. On the other hand, generic top-level domains (gTLDs) are governed directly under ICANN, which means all terms and conditions are defined by ICANN with the cooperation of each gTLD registry.
Domain names are often seen as being similar to real estate in that (1) domain names are virtual properties on which a website (like a house or commercial building) can be built and (2) the highest quality domain names, like sought-after real estate, tend to carry significant value, usually due to their online brand-building potential, use in advertising, search engine optimization, etc.
A few companies have offered low-cost, below-cost or even free domain registrations, with a variety of models adopted to recoup the costs to the provider. These usually require that domains be hosted on their website within a framework or portal that includes advertising wrapped around the domain holder's content, revenue from which allows the provider to recoup the costs. Domain registrations were free of charge when the DNS was new. A domain holder (often referred to as a domain owner) can generally give away or sell infinite subdomains on their domain name. For example, the owner of example.edu could provide subdomains such as any.example.edu and any.other.example.edu to interested parties.
The adult entertainment industry now has a home on the Internet: It's called .xxx. The group that manages the Internet's top-level domains -- the .com, .org and .net that we all type at the end of e-mail messages and Web addresses -- said Friday that it will establish a .xxx domain, a move that it hopes will add a measure of predictability and security to the wild world of Internet websites. The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) signed off on the process at a meeting in San Francisco this week. Pornography is often used to lure Web surfers to dangerous or fraudulent sites. By regulating .xxx, ICANN hopes to make things better. Anyone who wants to register a .xxx domain will first have to go through an application process that's approved by the International Foundation for Online Responsibility. This procedure is intended to ensure that .xxx domains don't engage in fraud, child pornography and other practices. At the same time, having a domain set aside specifically for adult websites would make it easier for users to block such sites from their browsing experience. The move gives consumers "reassurance they are more protected from the risk of viruses, identity theft, credit card fraud and inadvertent exposure to child abuse images," ICANN said Friday in a statement announcing the decision. However, critics say established porn sites are unlikely to give up their .com domains just because there's a .xxx option. That means anyone who thinks he's filtered porn by filtering out all .xxx domains from his network is due for a nasty surprise. In addition, porn site operators won't be forced to get .xxx domain names and go through the vetting process. ICANN has been toying with the idea of introducing .xxx for about a decade. The board had approved the new top-level domain in June, but now the decision is final. Longtime .xxx proponent ICM Registry will be the .xxx registrar. The company says it has received applications to pre-register more than 200,000 .xxx domains.
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